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Annotated Bibliographys

Page history last edited by PBworks 12 years, 5 months ago

Professor Ted Coopman

RTVF 173

 

Theory Description- Annotated Bibliographys - Executive SummaryPractical Applications - FrontPage 

 

 

 

 

Framing: Annotated Bibliography

Entman defines framing as, "selecting and highlighting some facets of events or issues, and making connections among them so as to promote a particular interpretation, evaluation, and/or solution." He continues by further defining substantive framing as "defining effects...identifying causes, conveying a moral judgment and endorsing remedies" (Entman, 2007)
 
 
 
Brewer, P., & Macafee, T. (2007). Anchors away: Media framing of broadcast television network evening news anchors. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 12(4), 3-19. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database.
 
          Brewer and MacAfee examine how framing of news anchors is relative to that of framing used for political candidates. Brewer and MacAfee study the differences in how newspapers use framing on three nightly major television news anchor replacements. The public relies and trusts the news anchors for their main source of information. Like candidates, there are many frames in which the media cast upon the news anchors. Brewer and MacAfee are lead to believe that male and female jobs are not equal because of the differences in framing of gender. The media tends to frame the looks of the female candidate versus experience of the male candidate. The rating games are another way the newspapers use framing of the news anchors. This type of framing is equivalent to the popularity polls for candidates. The experience frame is a subsidy to the frame of the rating games. It’s not what you know, it’s who you know. This article reflects how framing is used to manipulate the political views of the public. Whether they are anchors or candidates, the public relies on them for guidance.
 
 
 
Dimitrova, D., & Stromback, J. (2006). A comparison of election news coverage in sweden and the united states. Conference Papers -- International Communication Association. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.
 
 
 
            Dimitrova and Stromback study the differences in news framing related to political elections in the United States and Sweden. Three papers from each country were content analyzed for stories written during each recent national election. The authors discovered that U.S. newspapers are more likely to frame politics as a strategic game, utilizing horse-race style coverage of the elections. Stories from Sweden focused more on political issues rather than the politicians. The reasoning hypothesized for more horse-race and game framing in the U.S. results from the U.S. journalists view of objectivity as, “expressing fairly the position of each side in a political dispute,” which creates the more competitive atmosphere. Swedish journalists see objectivity as, “going beyond the statements of the contending sides to the hard facts of a political dispute.” This view explains why Swedish articles are more issue based and interpretive. The article demonstrates the possible motivations behind framing news a certain way, and highlights how two countries frame differently based on their journalist culture.
 
 
 
Druckman, J. (2001). The implications of framing effects for citizen competence. Political Behavior, 23(3), 225-256. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from JSTOR archive database.
 
 
 
           Druckman examines how the implications of framing effects by scholarly and popular literature can manipulate the competence of the average citizen’s political beliefs, judgments and behaviors. Druckman defines framing, the effects of framing, how political views can be changed and how to determine the competence of a citizen. He focuses his study on equivalency framing effects and emphasis framing effects. The opinions of the elite tend to manipulate the competence of the citizen and their political views. By presenting their view and the lack of attention to the other points of view, the elite’s framing effects are able to manipulate the political process of democracy. By using a frame more frequently, the elite are capable of making citizens remember their point of view only. This article reflects how equivalency framing effects and emphasis framing effects manipulate the competence of the average citizen’s political beliefs.
 
 
 
Dunsmore, K. (2007). The less said the better: Framing through the absence of elite sources. Conference Papers -- International Communication Association. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.
 
 
 
            Dunsmore researches the differences in framing news between Canada and the U.S. involving the discovery of mad cow disease in a cow in Canada. This was a unique look at framing as it dealt with trade rather than domestic or military issues; which are commonly analyzed for framing. By content analyzing stories written in Canada and the U.S. Dunsmore was able to identify the U.S. framing of the story as Canada’s problem, of which a ban on Canadian beef was the solution; and Canada’s framing over the story as a shared issue that both the U.S. and Canada must handle together. Canadian coverage included a number of U.S. officials to promote their frame, while the U.S. furthered their frame by the absence elite sources. Dunsmore claims this absence supports the finality of the issue as Canadian, so much so that U.S. officials won’t even address it as a U.S. problem. This demonstrates how the lack of elite citations can further a frame.
 
 
Entman, R. (2007). Framing bias: media in the distribution of power. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 163-173. Retrieved March 25, 2008, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.
 
 
 
          Entman examines the implications of framing for a specific media. He also examines how framing effects can broaden our understanding of media. Entman develops a typology which classifies his ideals of framing with in the media. Hedescribes how the paradigms of media framing have changed political views over the years. Propaganda, reinforcement of an idea, shift in attitude and social constructivism has shaped framing effects in the media. Media frames or the political use of frames, contrast with individual frames or so called personal beliefs. By forming a link with your audience, you are able to manipulate or persuade the individual frame to agree with or accept the Media frame being presented. Entman’s use of typology classifies previous found research, determines weather previous questions were answered from that research and did his hypothesis develop more information about the ideal frame. This article reflects how framing causes media effects that alter individual ideas for political gain.
 
 
 
Entman, R. (2003). Cascading activation: Contesting the white house's frame after 9/11. Political Communication, 20(4), 415. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.
 
 
 
            Entman introduces the cascading activation model and demonstrates itsapplication through the Bush administrations framing of Iraq after 9/11 and the counterframe of Saudi Arabia offered by journalists and dissenting elites. Entman followed the progress of the Bush administrations ‘War on Terror’ frame following 9/11 and the targeting of Iraq as a terrorist nation. Despite having no evidence linking Iraq to Al-Qaeda the Bush administration was easily able to frame Iraq as the enemy, even though Saudi Arabia elites were linked directly to Al-Qaeda. Entman shows how this was possible because of the cultural resonance Iraq allowed due to the recent war fought there. Two journalists tried to change this frame to focus on Saudi Arabia as a greater threat but were overlooked, until elites began to question the administration’s frame per the indexing model. Ultimately the administration’s frame was a success; however this demonstration shows how frames compete through the communication landscape. Also it points out that successful framing will follow cultural resonance and magnitude.
 
 
 
Haas, E. (2007). False Equivalency: Think tank references on education in the news media. Peabody Journal of Education, 82(1) 63-102. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Academic Search Premier.
 
 
 
            Haas takes the stance in his research that the information and research on education by the new media is most often incorrect. This article explores different types of think tanks used by the mass media. These think tanks are known as Contract Research, Academic, Advocacy, and Mixed Academic and Advocacy. Haas discusses how these differing think tanks are established by the news media. He also talks of how these tanks are pull from as sources when referring to the given topic. Educational facts and figuresare directly pulled from they're personal think tanks. These think tanks are cited as, "credible sources of research, facts, and figures on education, regardless of the extent to which each think tank emphasized policy and political advocacy over the professional norms of academic research." This article gives a very direct view on how the media creates its own information. The use of framing in the media for its' own informational means adds a great deal of strength to our research. Haas' ability to uncover these think tanks gives us a clear example of how the media creates material for framing purposes.
 
 
 
Lind, R. A., & Salo, C. (2002) The framing of feminists and feminism in news and public affairs programs in U.S. electronic media. Journal of Communication, 52(1) 211-228. Retrieved March 21, 2008, from Film & Television Literature Index database.
 
 
 
            The research presented in this article by Lind and Salo analyzes the framing of feminists in the media compared to the framing of “women.” After scrutinizing 35,000 hours of content on stations like ABC, CNN, PBS, and NPR, they found that feminists did not appear very often. In the media, most feminists are portrayed in a negative way. Feminists are framed in the media much less often as “regular” women. Feminists are not usually shown as being victims, but portrayed as being associated with goals of the women’s movement. The activities that feminists are framed as participating in (the arts, politics) are not the same that regular women are shown doing (day-to-day work, leisure activities). The result of this framing is that the audience watching this content views feminists and feminism differently than it views “normal” women. The authors contemplate whether this framing does anything to help people understand the ideals of the feminist movement at all.
 
 
 
Loroz, P. S. (2007,). The interaction of message frames and reference points in prosocial persuasive appeals. Psychology & Marketing, 24(11) 1001-1023. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.
 
 
 
          Loroz is using experimentation to solidify the inconsistent results found in previous experimentation of framing. The inconsistencies are based around the context of the source material and whether or not it’s a salience issue. Not a lot of research has been done on the positive framing of issues that don’t immediately threaten people. Two studies were done to determine whether a negative or positive frame is more effective under different societal conditions. Recycling was used and pamphlets were handed out to a group of undergraduates with both the beneficial and negative affects to them as individuals and how it affects other people. The results were consistent with the hypothesis so a second study was done to see if there is a correlation between the much more studied issue of health and the lesser-studied environment. Again a group of students was used with subjects of recycling and genital human papillomavirus, otherwise known as HPV. They were chosen because they both affect the demographic and less in known about HPV than other sexually transmitted diseases. The pamphlets they used were altered and made more distinct between how the individual is affected and how the individual plus others can be affected. The second study was added with the question of how it might affect attitude. The results showed that attitudes were similar regardless of health or environment. People respond best to a positive societal outlook on future issues, and a negative take on an individual’s problem.
 
 
 
Lynch, O. H. (2007). First impressions matter: The framing of katrina coverage by cnn and fox news channel. Television Quarterly, 38(3/4) 33-39. Retrieved March 21, 2008, from Film & Television Literature Index database.
 
 
 
          The article by Lynch examines the results of an analysis by 65 college students that examined the coverage of the hurricane Katrina aftermath by cable news networks CNN and FOX News. Their responses showed proof of the differences between the two networks in the framing of a sudden event into a consistent news story. The overall conclusion of the analysis was that FOX framed the Katrina event as an enormous loss of property caused by a natural disaster and a situation rampant with crime and reckless behavior by residents. On the other hand, CNN framed the event as the result of incompetence by government agencies that threatened the lives of citizens. The report showed that CNN chose to focus on personal resident accounts to help tell the human aspect of the story, while FOX used expert opinions and wider camera angles to describe the events. Lynch notes that while the framing of both news services reflects their editorial viewpoints, it is curious that FOX chose not to frame Katrina as an unfolding human tragedy even when it became increasingly clear that it was one.
 
 
 
Hook, Steven W., & Xiaoyu Pu. Framing sino-american relations under stress: A reexamination of news coverage of the 2001 spy plane crisis. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 33(3), 167-183. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Academic Search Premier.

 

 

      Hook and Xiaoyu examine the Sino-American relations as a pivotal point in the current balance of power in our global world today. The term Sino-America relations refers to the relationship between The People's Republic of China and The Unites States of America. Their research in this article considers the 2001 spy plane crisis to be a revealing time period in diplomatic exchange. The importance of this event has a great deal to do with how the news networks from both countries framed the crisis as it took place.  Hook and Xiaoyu stated that "the correspondence of news coverage" to the different states within The People's Republic of China were vastly different. This article draws particular attention to how framing in this situation largely swayed public opinion in both the USA and China. This research provides a great amount of information in regards to the effects of media framing during a time of crisis.

 

 

 
Moy, P., & Zhou, C. (2006). Frame building and frame setting: The interplay between online public opinion and media coverage. Annual Meeting, 1(32). Retrieved March 18, 2008, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.
 
 
 
          This research paper is an examination of how the framing differs between media sources and online individual sources looking at frame building, frame-interacting, and frame-setting. The focus of this research is based on a news event in China. A wealthy woman was able to avoid prison because of her political ties after killing a peasant and injuring twelve others. The Chinese government was able to keep the story quiet until the end of the trial. There was an online outcry that was later crushed by the government. Moy and Zhou followed the three phases of the frame-building as the framing evolved from problem definition, casual interpretation, moral evaluation, to treatment recommendation. As time and frame progressed the early frames such as problem definition were no longer needed, as the information becomes known. What was surprising was how little of an impact the offline media had on the online media through frame-setting. The cause was the obvious distrust of the people and their government. This difference in government shows how beneficial it can be to compare framing between different societies and cultures.
 
 
 
Nan, X. (2007). Social distance, framing, and judgment: A construal level perspective. Human Communication Research, 33(4), 489-514. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.
 
 
 
           Nan uses different examples of the theory of framing to investigate how social distance affects individuals’ judgment. Hegot one hundred and thirty-three college students participate in the study. They were randomly assigned one of four framing conditions; gain, loss, societal, and individual. Different wording was used to manipulate framing as each student was given a pamphlet on Hepatitis C in an attempt to persuade them to get tested. For the students using gain framing they were encouraged through the positive benefits of being tested. Students with loss framing were reinforced with the negatives of not being tested. The students testing societal affects students were asked to respond based on the average student. And the students with individual framing were asked to respond based on the affects of their best friends. In a second experiment, similar to the previous one, students were handed out manipulated information about using public transportation to focus on societal and individual framing. The societal based information focused on the benefits to society as a whole; individual framing based on the benefits to the individual. The third experiment was used focused again on all four examples of framing through manipulated public service announcements persuading the reader not to smoke. Framing was used to test construal level theory because these specific types of framing have high-level construals and can better influence the judgments of socially distant people. Gain framing was significantly more effective when looking to the future as regarding society over the individual.
 
 
 
Snow, D. A., Vliegenthart, R., & Corrigall-Brown, C. (2007). Framing the french riots: A comparative study of frame variation. Social Forces, 86(2) 385-415. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Academic Search Premier.
 
 
 
          Snow, Viliegenthart, and Corrigall-Brown study the effects of framing during times of political turmoil namely the French riots in the fall of 2005. The public opinion of these riots that took place was largely determined by the information provided and the way the information was spun. The reasoning for these riots was delivered as a one sided argument against the rioters in many cases. The media saw these rioters as crimes hiding behind there social outcries. During the course of the authors' studies they found in newspapers from a half dozen countries during the period in which the riots occurred had various viewpoints and understanding as to why these riots were happening, however when looking at the way the stories were spun, the information on the side of the rioters was discrediting to they're cause. In some case the entire viewpoint of the rioters was completely left out. The quantitative research in this article will help to understand the vast amount of media framing that takes place globally.  
 
Wojcieszak, M. E. (2007). Al Jazeera: A challenge to traditional framing research. International Communication Gazette, 69(2) 115-128. Retrieved March 21, 2008, from Film & Television Literature Index database.
 
 
 
           Wojcieszak takes a look at research on framing and how the 24 hour Arab news network Al Jazeera poses a challenge to the model. Wojcieszak argues that traditional framing may not be able to properly analyze Al Jazeera and other satellite networks that are not affiliated with governments and media regulations. The constantly changing Arab media environment from which Al Jazeera has emerged is vastly different from the relatively stable system in the United States. The network greatly benefits from emerging technology, and is independent of domestic government control. For that reason, Al Jazeera intertwines there use of news sources and national representatives of power that was widely common in the Middle East and assumed by traditional framing research. Since its creation in 1996, Al Jazeera has remained anti-hegemonic. It has targeted government corruption and served as a forum for opposition movements and minority groups in the Arabic world. Therefore, western framing may not be able to classify Al Jazeera in the traditional media field as it escapes from the normal constraintsof media outlets.

 

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